Whey Protein Post-Workout is Anabolic… Just a Reminder
Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2010 Sep 27. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.2010.02187.x. [Epub ahead of print]
Resistance exercise enhances mTOR and MAPK signalling in human muscle over that seen at rest after bolus protein ingestion.
Moore DR, Atherton PJ, Rennie MJ, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SM.
Exercise Metabolism Research Group, Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada School of Graduate Entry Medicine & Health, Graduate Entry Medical School, University of Nottingham, Derby, UK Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
Aim: Feeding protein after resistance exercise enhances the magnitude and duration of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) over that induced by feeding alone. We hypothesized that the underlying mechanism for this would be a greater and prolonged phosphorylation of signalling involved in protein translation. Methods: Seven healthy young males performed unilateral resistance exercise followed immediately by the ingestion 25g of whey protein to maximally stimulate MPS in a rested and exercised leg. Results: Phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) was elevated (P<0.05) above fasted at 1h at rest whereas it was elevated at 1,3, and 5h after exercise with protein ingestion and displayed a similar post-exercise time course to that shown by MPS. Extracellular regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) phosphorylation were unaltered after protein ingestion at rest but were elevated (P<0.05) above fasted early in recovery (1 h) and were greater for the exercised-fed leg than feeding alone (main effect; P<0.01). Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) phosphorylation was also less (main effect; P<0.05) in the exercised-fed leg than in the rested leg suggesting greater activity after exercise. Eukaryotic initiation 4E binding protein-1 (4EBP-1) phosphorylation was increased (P<0.05) above fasted to the same extent in both conditions. Conclusion: Our data suggest that resistance exercise followed by protein feeding stimulates MPS over that induced by feeding alone in part by enhancing the phosphorylation of select proteins within the mammalian target of rapamycin (p70S6K, eEF2) and by activating proteins within the mitogen activated protein kinase (ERK1/2, p90RSK) signalling.
Journal compilation © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.
PMID: 20874802 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
We all know the benefits of taking whey protein post-workout. The above study showed that the combination of weight training plus whey protein resulted in a greater increase in protein synthesis than when whey protein is taken at rest. Weight training provides a stimulus for increased protein synthesis so take advantage of it by taking whey protein post-workout.
One Set per Exercise = Same Energy Expenditure as Three Sets per Exercise
Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Oct 1. [Epub ahead of print]
One-set resistance training elevates energy expenditure for 72 h similar to three sets.
Heden T, Lox C, Rose P, Reid S, Kirk EP.
Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, Southern Illinois University, Box 1126, Edwardsville, IL, 62026, USA.
To compare the effects of an acute one versus three-set full body resistance training (RT) bout in eight overweight (mean ± SD, BMI = 25.6 ± 1.5 kg m(-2)) young (21.0 ± 1.5 years) adults on resting energy expenditure (REE) measured on four consecutive mornings following each protocol. Participants performed a single one-set or three-set whole body (10 exercises, 10 repetition maximum) RT bout following the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for RT. REE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) by indirect calorimetry were measured at baseline and at 24, 48, and 72 h after the RT bout. Participants performed each protocol in randomized, counterbalanced order separated by 7 days. There was no difference between protocols for REE or RER. However, REE was significantly (p < 0.05) elevated (~5% or ~400 kJ day(-1)) in both the protocols at 24, 48, and 72 h post RT bout compared with baseline. There was a no change in RER in both the protocols at 72 h compared to baseline. A one-set RT bout following the ACSM guidelines for RT and requiring only ~15 min to complete was as effective as a three-set RT bout (~35 min to complete) in elevating REE for up to 72 h post RT in overweight college males, a group at high risk of developing obesity. The one-set RT protocol may provide an attractive alternative to either aerobic exercise or multiple-set RT programs for weight management in young adults, due to the minimal time commitment and the elevation in REE post RT bout.
PMID: 20886227 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The above study showed that performing one set per exercise (10 total exercises) lead to the same energy expenditure as performing three sets per exercise (10 total exercises). For those using weight training as means to boost their metabolism for weight loss this study shows that you do not have to spend all day in the gym to burn calories; performing 10 sets is just as good as 30 sets when it comes to energy expenditure.
More Support for Fish Oil
J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 Oct 8;7:31.
Effects of supplemental fish oil on resting metabolic rate, body composition, and salivary cortisol in healthy adults.
Noreen EE, Sass MJ, Crowe ML, Pabon VA, Brandauer J, Averill LK.
Department of Health Sciences, Gettysburg College, Gettysburg Pennsylvania, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org.
BACKGROUND: To determine the effects of supplemental fish oil (FO) on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, and cortisol production in healthy adults.
METHODS: A total of 44 men and women (34 ± 13y, mean+SD) participated in the study. All testing was performed first thing in the morning following an overnight fast. Baseline measurements of RMR were measured using indirect calorimetry using a facemask, and body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Saliva was collected via passive drool and analyzed for cortisol concentration using ELISA. Following baseline testing, subjects were randomly assigned in a double blind manner to one of two groups: 4 g/d of Safflower Oil (SO); or 4 g/d of FO supplying 1,600 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). All tests were repeated following 6 wk of treatment. Pre to post differences were analyzed using a treatment X time repeated measures ANOVA, and correlations were analyzed using Pearson's r.
RESULTS: Compared to the SO group, there was a significant increase in fat free mass following treatment with FO (FO = +0.5 ± 0.5 kg, SO = -0.1 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.03), a significant reduction in fat mass (FO = -0.5 ± 1.3 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 1.2 kg, p = 0.04), and a tendency for a decrease in body fat percentage (FO = -0.4 ± 1.3% body fat, SO = +0. 3 ± 1.5% body fat, p = 0.08). No significant differences were observed for body mass (FO = 0.0 ± 0.9 kg, SO = +0.2 ± 0.8 kg), RMR (FO = +17 ± 260 kcal, SO = -62 ± 184 kcal) or respiratory exchange ratio (FO = -0.02 ± 0.09, SO = +0.02 ± 0.05). There was a tendency for salivary cortisol to decrease in the FO group (FO = -0.064 ± 0.142 μg/dL, SO = +0.016 ± 0.272 μg/dL, p = 0.11). There was a significant correlation in the FO group between change in cortisol and change in fat free mass (r = -0.504, p = 0.02) and fat mass (r = 0.661, p = 0.001).
CONCLUSION: 6 wk of supplementation with FO significantly increased lean mass and decreased fat mass. These changes were significantly correlated with a reduction in salivary cortisol following FO treatment.
PMID: 20932294 [PubMed - in process]
This study shows that 1,600mg EPA and 800mg DHA (total of 2,400 mg EPA/DHA) increases lead mass AND decreases fat mass. Scientific research continues to validate fish oil supplementation. If you aren’t taking fish oil you are missing out!